IJIS White Papers

Post Covid-19: Successes, Challenges & Next Steps

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought unprecedented and rapidly shifting challenges to business, government, and our daily lives. Throughout this event, however, organizations and individuals have continually risen to meet these challenges, innovating and adopting new technologies in ways and at a pace never before imagined. By leveraging technology, reevaluating long-established business processes, and expanding inter-agency and public-private sector cooperation, the criminal justice, homeland security, and public safety domains have not only continued to operate, but realized long-term, structural improvements in efficiency, outcomes, and customer satisfaction. 

ECC & Pandemic Planning

Emergency Communications Centers (ECC) personnel are concerned about the spread of COVID through center personnel, from contact with surfaces in the facility and from interaction with other staff. While many have remained at home during the pandemic, first responders, including emergency communications staff, generally were unable to do so due to the requirements of their jobs.

RMS Standard Functional Specifications Document

The IJIS Institute is pleased to announce the publication a critical publication entitled Standard Functional Specifications for Law Enforcement Records Management Systems, Version III. This significant accomplishment was the effort of the RMS Standards Task Force, a joint group formed by the IJIS Institute’s Law Enforcement Advisory Committee (LEAC) and the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) Criminal Justice Information Systems (CJIS) Committee.

The guidelines have been produced to support agency policy development, request for proposal development, law enforcement training development and delivery, and an overall general understanding of what should be included as part of a records management system. 

Cloud Fundamentals

A law enforcement agency’s computing infrastructure is designed to support various operating conditions. However, major disasters and events, such as hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, major winter storms, or even hosting the Super Bowl, can strain computing infrastructure past its breaking point. This was even more apparent during the COVID-19 pandemic when many public safety agencies quickly adopted cloud solutions to sustain their operations, often earlier than they may have previously planned. Adopting new cloud solutions will continue past the COVID-19 pandemic, so agencies must clearly understand their capabilities and limitations. This paper describes the basics of cloud computing and the role that the cloud can play in public 

Technology Adoption Roadmap for Success

The IJIS Institute’s Technology and Architecture Committee (ITAC) is chartered with providing information to industry and practitioners regarding technologies, architectures, and standards that enable the successful adoption of technology in order to better meet their operational missions. Technology adoption is a discipline that crosses the criminal justice (Law Enforcement, Corrections, Courts), homeland security and public safety (Fire, EMS, Emergency Management) domains. The ITAC has developed this position paper on technology adoption for the benefit of our practitioners in these specific domains. 

Blockchain Task Force Technical Framework Use Case

This document provides a technical framework for public sector justice organizations to understand blockchain or distributed ledger technologies, as well as how and in what instances they should be considered when evaluating solutions for use cases and appropriate characteristics (e.g., security and transparency, shared (peer-to-peer) network, immutability, and method for achieving consensus on transactions).

COVID-19 Challenges for Emergency Communication Centers

Emergency Communications Centers (ECCs) response to the COVID-19 pandemic is forcing rapid change resulting in new plans, processes, and configurations that have never been tried before. While much of the US workforce can work from home using broadband internet, cloud services, and video teleconferencing, very few EECs have the capability/procedures to allow personnel to work remotely. There are challenges including administrative rules or laws, operational processes, cybersecurity concerns, and technology used to support 9-1-1 call handling and dispatch. All ECCs have done Continuity of Operations Planning (COOP); however, during today’s crisis many are rolling out new approaches that must be tested and modified as issues arise.

CJIS Background Check Playbook

Founded in 1992, the Criminal Justice Information Services (CJIS) is the largest branch of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), where it houses biometric, identity history, biographical, proprietary, and case/incident historical data. Since then, the need to store and securely transport sensitive data has increased as more data becomes available, whether through legal or illegal activities.

CJIS information is accessed through online and offline resources as local, state, federal, and tribal governments migrate data to cloud providers. Therefore, companies and cloud providers share a responsibility to protect all data when stored and while in the cloud.

As a result of increased data, the FBI released several standards to ensure the confidentiality and security of Criminal Justice Information (CJI). This playbook provides best practices for managing users who request CJI access, as well as the required state-level background checks to access CJI. This playbook also addresses best practices to use when managing background checks for personnel who require any CJI access.

Protective Order Use Case Assessment

This document aims to help those in information management and exchange roles in the justice and public safety communities to understand how blockchain technology may address challenges faced when managing and sharing information among agencies at the local, state and federal levels. Specifically, it investigates the protective order use case for Missouri and how blockchain technologies can address security, authority and validity, and auditability challenges.

Artificial Intelligence in Justice & Public Safety

The IJIS Institute’s Technology and Architecture Committee (ITAC) provides information to industry and government practitioners regarding technologies, architectures, and standards that enable the successful adoption of the technology and sharing or enterprise use of information. Artificial Intelligence / Machine Learning / Deep Learning are a collection of related technologies that provide great benefits to the criminal justice (i.e., Law Enforcement, Corrections, Courts), homeland security, and public safety domains (i.e., Fire, Emergency Management Services). ITAC developed this position paper on these technologies to benefit our practitioners in these domains.

Law Enforcement Facial Recognition Use Case Catalog

This Law Enforcement Facial Recognition Use Case Catalog is a joint effort by a Task Force comprised of IJIS Institute and International Association of Chiefs of Police. The document includes a brief description of how facial recognition works, followed by a short explanation of typical system use parameters. The main body of the catalog contains descriptions and examples of known law enforcement facial recognition use cases. A conclusion section completes this catalog, including four recommended actions for law enforcement leaders.

ASAP to PSAP Case Study Standards & Outcomes

This paper will provide background on why Automated Secure Alarm Protocol (ASAP) to Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP), referred herein as ASAP-to-PSAP, is important, and what it takes to get started. Although several papers and presentations exist on the ASAP project, no one paper compiles all relevant information together in one place. The paper will answer questions not covered in other articles and illuminates a path for CAD service providers, consultants, practitioners, and systems integrators to understand ASAP benefits and begin to take the steps to gain greater participation in the ASAP-to-PSAP program. 

Cloud Computing: A Business Case

Most state and local agencies are grappling with IT and operational budget cuts and have to figure out ways to make more with less. Lower budgets mean reductions in workforce, as well as reduced spending on hardware and software. However IT departments such as those in justice and public safety still have to support existing IT infrastructure, ongoing initiatives, and develop new and improved secure services for their citizens and staff. The Cloud can provide answers to these types of challenges. 

Use Cases in Public Safety CAD-to-CAD Data Sharing

This paper, written by the IJIS Public Safety Technical Standards Committee, provides real-life examples of how peer practitioners are exchanging data, with a focus on CAD-to-CAD. These examples enable law enforcement, fire/rescue, EMS, and other regional stakeholders to envision how CAD-to-CAD automation will better serve the public and help protect first responders in both daily use and during extraordinary events. 

InfoBrief: Court Roles in Criminal Hx Records

The IJIS Institute Courts Committee created an info brief on The Role of Courts in Accuracy and Completeness of Criminal History Records. The information contained in criminal history repositories is essential to law enforcement and other criminal justice agencies. The use of criminal history information for non-law enforcement purposes, such as background checks for firearms, employment, licensing, and other purposes, is rapidly growing, resulting in greater awareness and growing criticism. Most of the criticism is focused on concerns about the integrity of computerized criminal history (CCH) records, and, in particular, records that are not complete, accurate, and timely. 

Predictive Analytics

Within justice and public safety, the adoption of business intelligence, as well as data analytics technology and techniques, is advancing rapidly. This white paper introduces predictive analytics, one of the newer developments in data analysis, and its application in several justice and public safety areas. 

InfoBrief: Cloud Computing and the Courts

Courts today are plagued with rising upfront software licensing costs and operational expenditures that make it difficult to take the next step to modernize their information systems, mainly the case management system. Cloud computing, more commonly known as the cloud, provides alternative solutions to address this issue while providing ease of access to information for citizens and judicial officers in a secure and efficient manner. However, cloud computing comes with some inherent challenges that need to be addressed in implementing a cloud solution. This Info Brief provides an introduction to cloud computing for courts along with benefits and challenges. 

The Role of Courts in CJIS

Criminal Justice Information Systems (CJIS) focus on the collection, processing, preservation, and dissemination of criminal history, case, and incident information among justice partners and courts. Courts and court-related agencies are key to the criminal justice process. As a result, the criminal justice agencies and courts create, share, and publish significant amounts of information within the CJIS. The ability of court systems to effectively integrate and share data with the criminal justice partners helps reduce operating costs and improves the administration of the criminal justice system. 

Change Management: Best Practices in Public Safety Data Sharing Project

This paper is a follow-on to the IJIS Institute white paper Critical Decision Criteria for Data Sharing that provides guidance to practitioners on planning to implement a data sharing solution. This paper is crafted specifically for Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) and Records Management Systems (RMS) data sharing projects, such as CAD-to-CAD and RMS-to-RMS, but the concepts are universal. It details guiding principles founded in change and project management and provides mini case studies on projects that struggled. These mini studies and the accompanying lessons learned were volunteered by a variety of people associated with with these projects, from consultants, project managers, executive sponsors as well as users of the systems. The ‘what went right, what went wrong and what could have been done better’ can be distilled into best practice concepts. 

Benefits of Using a Consultant (Public Safety Project)

This paper is intended to provide relevant and important information to improve federal, state, local, and tribal public safety critical information sharing efforts. The material contained herein is expected to be a valuable resource for public safety practitioners who may require assistance in the strategic planning for, procurement of, or implementation of any public safety system or component. Anyone who may require additional resources or expertise specific to a project will benefit from understanding how and when the use of a consultant may be valuable. 

Corrections Technology 2020

The Corrections Tech 2020 white paper , developed by the Corrections Advisory Committee, is a survey of technological trends, current and potential, which are likely to impact the corrections environment in the next 3-5 years. The aim is to provide a ‘one-stop’ high-level overview for the leadership of correctional agencies and their information technology (IT) organizations, to help understand how these capabilities are evolving, and anticipate where technology may be applied to address current and future business problems. 

CAD to CAD Data Sharing: Recommended Standards

What standards are applicable in a CAD-to-CAD RFP or RFP with CAD-to-CAD requirements? This paper begins a discussion of applicable standards but does not specifically address CAD standards or CAD functional requirements. This discussion will help to guide practitioners to include the most appropriate standards for CAD-to-CAD data sharing. 

Value of Corrections Information Sharing

The primary purpose of this white paper is to provide a better understanding of the corrections domain, the value of information captured in corrections, and how this information may be leveraged by the larger criminal justice system to support various agencies and the people they serve. 

NEIM Version Migration

White paper from the IJIS Technical Advisory Committee. January 2014 

Law Enforcement NDEx Implementer's Trail Guide

Resource from the IJIS Institute CJIS Programs Advisory Committee. January 2013

Critical Decision Criteria for Data Sharing

White paper from the IJIS Public Safety Technical Standards Committee. July 2013 

NEIM UML Recommendation

White paper from the IJIS Technical Advisory Committee. July 2013

NEIM 2.1 Internationalization Support Overview

White paper from the IJIS Technical Advisory Committee. March 2013 

Courts 101: An Understanding of the Court System

This paper was prepared to help you better understand the intricacies of the Judicial Branch in local,state, and federal courts by providing a high level overview of the court system, its processes, responsibilities, case flow, and person roles. It provides an overview of federal and state court systems and the different jurisdictions within these systems, and demonstrates why integration with other stakeholders is vital to the efficacy and efficiency of all court and the successful assimilation of the judicial branch in the integrated justice process today.

Governance Agreements in Public Safety Info Sharing

The accelerating trend toward regionalization, consolidation and information sharing in public safety, as well as a desire for more efficiency and effectiveness in operations, has led to higher numbers of formal agreements between participating agencies being created to provide structure and legality to information sharing partnerships. The demand for inter-agency assistance and collaboration has expanded the need for inter-agency information and resource sharing. Today’s agreements must reflect these emergent considerations not fully addressed in the past. This paper outlines two types of common agreements, best practices, and components of modern information and resource sharing agreements. 

Advances in Digital Video

The use of video in the public safety and justice realm has taken on greater significance over the past decade, due primarily to advancements enabled by digital video and its gradual replacement of analog video over this period. Video captured in, or converted to, a digital format has enabled many new capabilities that affect the cost and ease of storage, sharing of inter- and intra-agency video information, integration with other systems and data sources, and analysis used to extract meaning from large volumes of video data. This paper briefly describes the advancement in each of these areas as applied to the many domains (lines of business) within the justice and public safety enterprise, but with a deliberate focus on law enforcement as the front-line producer and consumer of video information. 

Efficient XML Interchange (EXI)

This emerging technology paper considers Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) as an emerging technology applicable to integrated justice and public safety data sharing. 

Standardized Interfaces/Exchanges Justice/Public Safety

This paper is intended to create awareness and educate justice and public safety personnel on the benefits of employing standardized information sharing. The rapid growth and acceptance of the National Information Exchange Model (NIEM), the use of Information Exchange Package Documentation (IEPD), and the development of the Justice Reference Architecture (JRA), have demonstrated how custom proprietary interfaces can be replaced with cost-effective solutions for interfacing disparate systems.

Contractor Personnel Background Checks

The IJIS Institute commissioned a task force to conduct a study on the FBI Criminal Justice Information Service (CJIS) background check process for contractor personnel. 

Data Sharing Between CAD Systems

This paper explores data sharing between dissimilar Computer Aided Dispatch (CAD) systems by discussing the CAD data sharing paradigm, examining current CAD data sharing efforts, and addressing some of the issues that inhibit CAD data sharing across the nation. 

NEIM Conformance for RFPs

This paper is intended to be a resource for public safety practitioners who are making decisions with regard to procurement for public safety computer systems that have, or may in the future have, information sharing requirements with other systems. The goal is to help ensure RFPs meet federal grant requirements and national best practices for information sharing, and to provide help in understanding the technology standards and how they relate to product selection. The National Information Exchange Model (NIEM), which is most often included in U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) and U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) grant requirements, is a national approach and common vocabulary for information exchange. 

Revision Assessment Fire/EMS in LE CAD Specs

In 2009, the IJIS Institute’s Public Safety Data Interoperability Project, with funding from the Bureau of Justice Assistance, identified the need to expand the original document to include fire service and emergency medical service (EMS) CAD functional specifications. This Revision Assessment serves two purposes. First, it provides the basis for determining the level of effort required to incorporate fire and EMS functional requirements into the existing Standard Functional Specifications for Law Enforcement Computer‐Aided Dispatch (CAD) Systems document. This document specifically describes fire and EMS CAD functionality that would need to be added, as well as numerous modifications to current language and restructuring suggestions. Secondly, until the next revision is published, this document can serve as a supplement of sorts to the existing Standard Functional Specifications for Law Enforcement CAD Systems to those needing a more complete list of base CAD functionality. 


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